Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Question: Talk about the Leadership Impacts on Organizational Performance of ANZ. Answer: Presentation Authority is a crucial deciding component of the accomplishment or absence of it in any association, particularly those occupied with business. A pioneer is an individual who has the intensity of impacting, spurring and guiding others to perform explicit obligations and furthermore animate others in the gathering towards the accomplishment of the business objectives(Reh, 2017). The idea of the effect of initiative is an act of provoking others duty towards the accomplishment of their maximum capacity, consequently, accomplishing esteem expansion with want and veracity. Pioneers of fruitful associations, whose exhibitions are on the game, consistently center around accomplishing results past the typical set standards(Bertocci, 2009). These kinds of pioneers can impact the presentation of people in an association through the defining of corporate objectives, mix a feeling of the noteworthiness of the groups crucial, evoke workers to thoroughly consider of the crate about an issue or ta sk. The pioneer can put the requirements of the association over their personal responsibility. The accentuation is on how banking organizations, for our situation ANZ (Australia and New Zealand) Banking Group in Australia, guarantee equipped authority to meet the set goals. In most recent occasions, many fund foundations recorded instances of exploitative and indecent practices; many can't meet the necessary commitments built up by the state. The outcome is that numerous associations have combined and some have been placed into receivership(Joshi, Cahill, Sidhu, Kansal, 2013). Points and Objectives This exploration is planned for deciding how ANZ Banking gathering, in Australia, have conflicted with all chances to guarantee that they are ready to go and working at a significant level than the greater part of its rivals. Considering the administration of the organization which is vital to the general execution. The investigation targets deciding how the association, through its administration program has had the option to satisfactorily nature and form people into better pioneers who are assimilated into the different bank offices of the ANZ gathering. The accompanying destinations will empower the accomplishment of this assignment. The investigation will likewise show how authority impacts on the presentation of the business all in all. A Brief Methodology The accompanying techniques will be utilized to comprehend and break down the point of this investigation. Writing Review: Involves investigating and exploring critical writing and material from solid sources, for example, diary articles and Google researcher. A topical assessment of these reports will be done to set up their significance to our investigation. Information arrangement and studies: ample material gathered from different sources and studies is to be analyzed to give a thought regarding administration and its effects on the ANZ Banking gathering. Information examination will utilize two techniques, subjective and quantitative. The subjective assessment will use online settings and studies while subjective examination utilizes exceed expectations sheets, pie diagrams, and figures. ANZ Leadership culture. ANZ is among one of the biggest banking corporates establishments in the Australian market as of now. The association has in excess of 30,000 representatives spread in Australia as well as in neighboring New Zealand, the UK, USA, Asia and the Pacific(Stockport, et al., 2012). The association targets supporting the skilled people and makes a setting where these individuals can include their insight into adding to the association's general objective of accomplishing its goal of being the main, regarded and quickest developing bank. The association realizes that for it to accomplish its motivation, it enlists the best ability out there as well as have put intensely in preparing its pioneers. The association concocted a continuous initiative preparing project to empower it to roll out maintainable social improvements. The partakers of this program leave away with a much close to home understanding and applied instruments preparing them arranged to lead others. The pioneers prepared can concoct procedures and needs to help the individuals who will be their subordinates to boost their potential in the activity environments(ANZ, 2017). This technique is successful in that it can make a connection between close to home initiative conduct and the results of the business. The members can comprehend their individual practices and the effect of these practices on their influential positions and style they embrace and the earth they make at the spot of work(Barclay Shankar, 2015). Discoveries Through the program chose by ANZ gathering to prepare their future heads, the association has created in excess of 600 administrators who are conveyed in different parts of the establishment. These administrators have had the option to make an empowering situation for the workers who give their 100 percent exertion in an offer to enable the association to expand benefits. Through viable administration at the bank offices, holes have been distinguished in tasks of the business just as the inspiration of workers to perform better. For example, bank operational practices and execution is being estimated against a lot of benchmarks empowering the representatives to distinguish on their own their individual weaknesses. This is rather than the administration of the organization going legitimately to enlighten workers regarding their shortcomings which may demotivate the representatives. The administration has additionally been prepared on fitting projects that are special to specific branches which go far at fortifying center authority esteems. The key result is that banks administration are presently effectively playing an on - going job in changing the spirit of the workers in the financial corridors. The representatives are made mindful of their activity prerequisites, and the authority makes an empowering hierarchical atmosphere that goes far into accomplishing the ideal destinations of ANZ Group(London, 2011). Authority isn't about pressure; it is tied in with furnishing individuals with a one of a kind chance of considering their character and conduct at the work environment, and furthermore empower them to think about their particular occupation duties(Riggio, 2008). ANZ bunch have prepared their pioneers to urge workers to be increasingly inventive and connect with their partners in talking about imaginative thoughts and introducing them to the administrations of the banks. The official administration has recognized that a portion of its workers are extremely imaginative and can concoct thoughts which can enable the business to develop. The firm likewise supports the pioneers of the different parts of its banks to put resources into a prize plan where consistently a representative of the month is compensated a little aggregate of cash in addition to a customized trophy. Effective and profitable administration is essential for workers in that representatives can create familiarity with the condition that they make in their working gatherings. They can see how this atmosphere influences their presentation, particularly with adequate authority at the work environment. The objective is that administration ought to have the option to draw out the best in the employees(Brown Hawkins, 2013), that is the reason ANZ Banking bunch in Australia is on the financial business, and the business understood that for it to bring in cash, it needs to put resources into the most fundamental piece of the business: leadership(Elena, 2015). This is a direct result of initiative effects on representatives yield at the working environment. End A successful association is one which can find some kind of harmony between what the partners need and the different needs of its laborers. Suitable administration in an association can impact and guarantee the financial development and flourishing of both the representatives and the foundation when all is said in done. Concocting the ways to deal with upgrade the presentation of workers is the essential obligation of each pioneer today. From the conversations, it is very obvious that there is a positive connection between's the presentation of workers, the authority of associations and the exhibition of the business in the serious field of business. References ANZ. (2017, 4 2). Initiative and Talent. Recovered from ANZ Banking Group: https://www.anz.com/about-us/corporate-supportability/representatives/creating professions/authority ability/ Barclay, J., Shankar, S. S. (2015). Cognizant Culture: how to fabricate a high perfoming work environment through qualities, morals and initiative. New York: Morgan James Publishing. Bertocci, D. (2009). Initiative in associations : there is a distinction among pioneers and administrators. Lanham: University Press of America. Earthy colored, D., Hawkins, B. (2013). Draw out the best in each representative : how to connect with your entire group by making the most of each authority second. New York: McGraw-Hill. Elena, R. (2015). THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE. Writing Reviews. Joshi, M., Cahill, D., Sidhu, J., Kansal, M. (2013). Scholarly capital and money related execution: an assessment of the Australian budgetary part. Diary of Intellectual Capital. London, M. (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Lifelong Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reh, J. (2017, April 2). Understanding the Role and Reponsibilities of Leadership. Recovered from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-a-pioneer 2275811 Riggio, R. (2008). The passionate and social insights of viable initiative: An enthusiastic and social ability approach. emerald knowledge, 169-185. Stockport, G., Godley, M., Guagliado, D., Leung, O., Mercer, B., Wong, S. (2012). ANZ Bank: Building a Strategy for Asia. Sage Journals.
Posted by Shara Keeler at 12:00 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Criminal guilty parties have existed in the general public for whatever length of time that the historical backdrop of humanity is concerned. Various measures have been set up to guarantee that crooks are brought to book and indicted as needs be. In the United States, various criminal equity frameworks have made endeavors to guarantee that there is social request consistently. In any case, a portion of these frameworks have gotten reactions from a cross-area of the general public most definitely (Schmalleger, 2005).Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on The U.S. Government Parole System explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The parole framework is one of the criminal equity approaches with the longest history in certain nations, especially the United States. It alludes to administered contingent arrival of a detainee from jail which is conceded path before the slip by of a given prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s court sentence (Hoffman, 2004). This framework, in any case , fluctuates in application starting with one state then onto the next in America. For example, in certain states, any individual indicted for genuine wrongdoing like homicide or assault isn't considered for parole. Since parole is allowed under exacting terms and conditions, the scarcest infringement bring about its disavowal and resulting re-imprisonment. The exposition examines the general history and reason for the parole framework in the United States. The negative just as beneficial outcomes of this framework on the general public are likewise examined. Besides, the different elements of nearby, state and government parole offices are featured. The government parole framework is underscored in this paper. In spite of the fact that law authorization organizations make a solid effort to keep lawbreakers off the boulevards, while the jails house them, it is the duty of the parole offices to guarantee that the wrongdoers avoid inconvenience and get the assist they with requiring b y giving network assets to help them socially reintegrate into the general public subsequent to being discharged. People indicted for some random wrongdoing get suitable sentence from the criminal equity framework material in that purview. Detainment for a predetermined timeframe has been one of the methods of restoring convicts (Parent, 1994). The period of time may go from a couple of months to life detainment. Be that as it may, as characterized above, parole makes an open door for the prisoners to be discharged on indicated footing and conditions before they complete their sentence in prison. As a rule, the parolee is under ordinary watch is still under the underlying sentence. The exercises of the parolee are limited by a named official, especially with regards to place of home, partners, and everyday occupation with a point of controling a backslide into crimes. The strategy of allowing parole is controlled by the resolution built up in the specialists of the United States (Do lgoff Fieldstein, 2008). In certain states, people carrying out uncertain life punishment might be qualified for parole upon request for release.Advertising Looking for article on country security? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In criminal law, parole isn't intended to abbreviate the sentence of a convict however to offer the parolee a chance to rearrange and quicken the recovery procedure particularly for first time guilty parties (Parent, 1994). The different states have resolutions which make parole sheets with the obligation of assessing and if fundamental, discharging the detainees from prison. These sheets lead parole hearings just as the hearings for the repudiation of paroles. A few states don't permit the people on parole to be spoken to during such hearings. In the United States, the parole framework was first formally settled and utilized in New York in 1876. By the turn of the twentieth century, numerous state s had embraced the parole framework. It was in 1910 that the U.S. Congress set up the Parole Commission accused of the obligation of conceding parole (Rush, 2003). There are various reasons why parole is utilized in the United States. In correlation, it is a lot less expensive to direct an individual on parole than to detain a convict. While an individual is on parole, the person has a chance to offer administrations to the network and consequently add to the general turn of events. Then again, the general public is guaranteed of security in light of the fact that the parolee is under customary watch to forestall backslide into wrongdoing. Wrongdoing is limited because of the way that an individual on parole might be re-detained if there should be an occurrence of the scarcest infringement of terms and conditions (Hoffman, 2004). It has been built up that parole fills in as one of the exceptionally powerful methods of restoring convicts. Parolees are continually regulated and guided as they straighten out into the general public. Parole likewise helps in controlling the number of inhabitants in nearby, state and government detainment facilities. For the most part, parole is allowed after gathering the set measures of good conduct while in jail. As much as parole laws vary starting with one state then onto the next, there are various practices that are shared among the states (Jacobson, 2005). In many states, the representative has the obligation of designating a parole board. The board is accused of the obligations of exploring the case chronicles of detainees qualified for parole, investigate the records, lead parole hearings, and award parole to fruitful competitors and to plan the conditions for parole. In addition, they can give warrants of captures for people who may damage parole conditions, lead parole repudiation hearings just as give the last release to people on parole after a predefined timeframe (Hoffman, 2004). A few states necessitate that the pa rolees pay a little charge each month which will be utilized to repay the expenses of standard oversight by chose officials from the parole commission. For example, a few states energize to $10 month to month and a limit of $2,500 yearly for convicts on parole for a crime (Jacobson, 2005). On the off chance that the parolee neglects to pay the predetermined expense, the parole board may start the way toward disavowing the parole particularly if the inability to pay can't be justified.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on The U.S. Government Parole System explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The obligation of deciding if one is qualified for parole or not rests with the parole board. The eventual benefits of the influenced society are viewed as when allowing parole. States which practice the parole framework underscore the way that parole isn't planned for lessening the sentences or conceding pardon/absolution to guilty parties (Del Carmen, 2006). It ought to likewise not be mistaken for probation which is normally given rather than detainment. So as to manage the giving of parole, most states checks the locale of the parole board. The resolutions in these states are structured so that there is a particular time of detainment that an individual must finish before being considered for parole (Schmalleger, 2005). The base timeframe is determined as a small amount of the all out sentence granted in the court administering which to a great extent rely upon the idea of wrongdoing submitted. In Arkansas, for example, an individual indicted for genuine wrongdoing like homicide, assault, abducting, uplifted theft, and presenting genuine security concerns isn't considered for parole until the person has carried out 70% of the first punishment (Rush, 2003). Detainees are qualified for parole after they serve at least 33% of their jail sentence with regards to lesser wrongdoings. In the United States, most states have received the state parole framework as a methods for checking stuffing in state penitentiaries. Be that as it may, the state and government parole frameworks have been under escalated reactions particularly during the 1970s. During this time, developments rose which pushed for the disbandment of the framework in numerous states. They saw the parole framework as a method of damaging Ã¢â¬Å"truth in sentencing.Ã¢â¬ The pundits requested that detainees ought to be left to carry out their full punishment as controlled by the courts. Numerous states including Virginia (1995) have abrogated the parole framework (Jackson, 2001). Truth be told, numerous states presently permit sentences of determinate life detainment without the chance of parole. Capital punishment for genuine violations like homicide and assault is additionally polished. Detainees who get neither of the sentences are qualified for parole after documenting an appeal for discharge. Another negative impact of parole as refered to by the pun dits is that it discharges famous hoodlums once again into the general public henceforth presenting genuine security concerns. Political systems with the most elevated frequencies of parole are viewed as being Ã¢â¬Ësoft on crimeÃ¢â¬â¢ and powering exemption. With regards to condemning alternatives, Alaska is the main state which doesn't allow the death penalty and life detainment without the probability of parole (Rush, 2003). Where parole is appropriate, a detainee who shows great conduct might be qualified for parole simply after the slip by of at least 85% of the jail sentence passed on by the court (Schmalleger, 2005). In any case, great direct in jail may not in at any rate ensure that a detainee be paroled. An exhaustive assessment of the prisoner must be led so as to decide qualification for parole.Advertising Searching for paper on country security? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More A portion of the components that assume a focal job incorporate; the accessibility of dependable spot of living arrangement just as maintainable and productive opening for work for the parolee. The parole board ought to be persuaded that the detainee will have the option to exhibit self-support after being paroled (Schmalleger, 2005). For old prisoners who wish to be paroled, there must be clear government disability for them before parole is conceded. These conditions show the incredible nearby an
Posted by Shara Keeler at 8:07 AM
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
Finding the Right Dating Partner When You Have ADHD ADHD Adult ADD/ADHD Print Finding the Right Dating Partner When You Have ADHD By Keath Low Keath Low, MA, is a therapist and clinical scientist with the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities at the University of North Carolina. She specializes in treatment of ADD/ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Keath Low Updated on September 29, 2019 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children PeopleImages / Getty Images Social relationships can create many challenges for an individual with ADD. Difficulties with paying attention to others, missing important verbal and nonverbal cues, impulsively reacting or saying things that may be hurtful, moodiness, quick temper, low tolerance for frustrations, forgetfulness, zoning out in conversations, oversensitivity to criticism, emotional over-reactions, problems following through with commitmentsâ"these are just some of the issues that make dating and maintaining positive relationships hard for an individual with ADD. Tackling all these issues at once can feel quite overwhelming, but finding the right partner is a good first step. Though the ADD behaviors that may get you in trouble are yours to address and manage, with a good partner, this task becomes a little easier. In order for the relationship to thrive, you must also be compatible with this person. If you want to maintain the relationship over the long term, you must also address negative patterns that have gotten you in trouble in the past. Positive connections with others are vitally important to our well-being. When you surround yourself with people who appreciate and value you, life is much more fulfilling. A person with a positive outlook and attitude is contagious. Finding the Right Partner Beginning to date or re-entering the dating process after a divorce can be an exciting and thrilling time, but it can also be filled with uncertainty, anxiety and even rejection. How do you know if this new person is a good match for you? How do you know if it is love or just the excitement of a new partner? When you are feeling vulnerable and rusty about the dating scene, how do you open yourself up to potential heartbreak and emotional pain? Make a List Start by sitting down in a quiet place and making a list of the qualities you value in a mate. After you have brainstormed about the list, prioritize each, from most important to least important. Are you looking for someone who will provide excitement and high activity, or do you prefer a stable and low-key person to balance out your energy level? Is it important to you that this person connects with your family members? What values do you want this person to have? What interests? What are your relationship goals? Are you looking for fun and lighthearted companionship, or are you seeking a long-term relationship and life partner? If you are currently dating someone, make a list of the qualities you like about this person. What initially attracted you to this person? Are there things about this person that bother you? Can you accept these qualities, or do you feel a nagging suspicion that as the relationship progresses, you may be less inclined to be accepting of them? If this person also has ADD, are they involved in treatment and actively getting help in managing their own ADD symptoms? How do you feel around this person â" happy and relaxed or insecure and rather tense? Can you be yourself around this person? If you are looking for a life partner, is this someone with whom you want to spend the rest of your life? Enlist the Help of a Trusted Friend Sometimes it helps to sit down with a trusted and supportive friend or family member to help you think through this process. It is not unusual for an individual with ADD to become so consumed with a new relationship that all objective thought flies out the door. When youâre right in the middle of a situation, your own perception may get skewed. You may also miss important clues or warning signs about the relationship that an outside party, who has your best interest at heart, is better able to point out to you. Review Your Relationship History Think through your past relationships, both the negative ones and the positive ones. What patterns are present? Do you tend to go full force into a relationship that fizzles out when the excitement of the âhoneymoonâ period dies down? Do you have a pattern of choosing the wrong partner, because you donât absorb all the social cues and warning signs others may see from the start? Do you have difficulty unwinding and connecting intimately? Do your impulsive reactions or inattention to the relationship get you in trouble and push your partner away? Do you end up sabotaging the relationship, provoking fights or arguments? Do you tend to stay in a bad relationship too long just hoping that person will change? Develop Positive Strategies Once you have identified past relationship problems, work on coming up with solutions. Areas that are often most difficult for individuals with ADD tend to center around deficits in self-controlâ"distractibility and inattention within the relationship that may be perceived by a partner as uncaring, problems in regulating emotions and inhibiting behaviors that may lead to hurt or irritated feelings. Medication is often very effective in reducing the severity of these symptoms. Additionally, strategies, such as self-talk, role-playing and practicing positive interactions, becoming more aware of emotional triggers and taking time out to decompress, etc., can help in forming and maintaining healthy relationships. Education about ADD is also important. When you and your partner understand how ADD affects your relationship, the plan for addressing issues becomes much clearer. If you are feeling stuck or unsure about what to do, donât hesitate to get help from others, especially from healthcare professionals experienced in treating ADD. Good Old Honest Communication Good, open, honest communication is essential in any relationship. Be friends first. Continue to assess the progress in your relationship. Sit down together on a regular basis and talk about how the relationship is going. Constructively and in a sensitive way address any problems. Be solution focused, not blameful. Try not to personalize negative feedback, instead talk together about how things may be done differently so both of you feel happy. If you tend to talk a lot, try talking less and listening more when you are together. Maintain eye contact while your partner is speaking. Show an interest, and let him or her know you care. Plan activities together that you both enjoy. Laugh warmly together. Take it slow. Donât rush the relationship. The strongest connections are built on good, honest trust and respect that can only be gained over time.
Posted by Shara Keeler at 3:56 AM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Affirmative Action in Employment The Universal Human Rights declaration states that all human beings have a natural right to equal freedoms thereby providing the basis for proactive measures to guarantee the enjoyment of equal rights in employment. Discourse on the controversial employment edicts of affirmative action and exceptions to the at-will employment doctrine signify the ambiguity in the implementation of the declaration on equal freedoms. White-male employees feel that the preferential treatment of women and racial minorities at the place of work is exerting undue pressure on their ability to compete effectively in the job market. Consequently, the employers vehemently object to the restrictions imposed on the at-will employmentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Removing employment barriers by affording dissimilar advantages at the place of work ensures that all members of the society are subject to proportionate opportunities for socioeconomic competition. Many years of suppres sion of minority races and sexes in the society implies that their socioeconomic development began late. Affirmative action compensates for the time and opportunity lost to ensure that disparities in opportunities do not persist. Argument Against Affirmative Action at Work The perceived unfairness in court decisions involving affirmative action cases has cast doubt on the validity and purpose of the concept in promoting equality and combating discrimination (Hodgess-Aeberhard, 1999). In the case California Regents vs. Bakke, the state court found that special allocation of college positions to minorities contravened the Equal Protection Clause and the Civil Rights Act. In consequence, affirmative action qualifies as reverse discrimination against groups of individuals who exhibit characteristics of the former perpetrators of social injustices (Hodgess-Aeberhard, 1999). It gives undue advantage to members of the favored group who are not disadvantaged at their current position. The affirmative measures are perpetual, and they become normative establishments with time, hence perpetrating another cycleShow MoreRelatedAffirmative Action And The Civil Rights And Equal Opportunity Legislation Of The 1960s958 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAffirmative action is a program that serves to rectify the effects of purportedly past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and opportunities to minorities and women. Affirmative action programs were an outgrowth of the 1950s and 1960s civil rights movements and the Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity legislation of the 1960s. Close to fifty years later, the practice of affirmative action has been at the vanguard of intense debate more than any other time in its history. Hardly a week goesRead MoreAffirmative Action And Equal Opportunity709 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesI. Introduction A. Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity in Employment have been used to ensure that all minorities are given an opportunity to succeed in America. Equal Opportunity itself is a concept hinted at by the founders in the Constitution, whereas Affirmative Action is the government policy that brings about Equal Opportunity in Employment. Has Affirmative Action actually managed to right the wrongs of previous discrimination of minorities or has it only compounded the discriminationRead MoreAffirmative Action For African Americans1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOliveira 1 Lucas Oliveira Ms. Alonso English 8 Honors 7 March 2015 Affirmative Action Have you ever wondered why all companies have employees of all races? Affirmative Action sought to give African Americans workers and minorities equal access to education and employment which was previously denied to them. It makes companies and schools give equal access to minorities. Affirmative Action is a topic that has been in government officials minds for a long time. Between 1870-1900, many African AmericansRead MoreAffirmative Action Is Important For Society1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Affirmative action Affirmative action is an attempt to address past discriminatory injustices which may be based on gender, race or ethnicity. Affirmative action may take the form of policies and programs which are mostly mandated by governments and designed to bring changes in organizations, companies and educational institutions. Affirmative action is a vital tool which provides qualified people with equal access to educational or professional opportunities that they would otherwise have beenRead MoreAffirmative Action vs Reverse Discrimination Essay1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAffirmative Action or Reverse Discrimination Colleen Koehn Business Law 1038 Instructor Jackie Sexson March 1, 2010 South University Online There has been a large debate in recent years if affirmative action has gone against the American way, has affirmative action caused reverse discrimination? The establishment of affirmative action was put into place to create equal rights for racial minorities, ethnic minorities, women, the physically disabled and those who served in the militaryRead MoreAffirmative Action Essay968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesopportunities given the high frequency of affirmative action programs; they attempt to increase the representation of minorities on college campuses and in the office, regardless of virtue. Programs of affirmative action arouse controversy because some groups view affirmative action as a catalyst for reverse discrimination whilst other groups support affirmative action as a way to diversify society and compensate for past exclusions. Affirmative action describes the Ã¢â¬Å"positive steps taken to increaseRead MoreDifferences Between Equal Employment Opportunity Initiatives, Affirmative Action Initiatives and Diversity Initiatives in Organizations1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDifferences between Equal Employment Opportunity initiatives, Affirmative Action initiatives and Diversity initiatives in organizations Tim Piper Issues in Human Resources Management Ã¢â¬â MBA 910 February 14, 2012 To best understand how affirmative action (AA), equal employment opportunity (EEO) and diversity work together, I will take a look at each of them and how they interact with each other and also explore the differences of the three initiatives . First Equal employment opportunityRead MoreAffirmative Action : Is It Still Needed1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe United States justice is defined as equal treatment of all its citizens under the law. When one citizen is mistreated an injustice has been committed against all people. Affirmative Action is a program whose purpose is to make sure that citizens are treated equally by enforcing a set of policies which are designed to promote the inclusion of all individuals regardless of race, disability, sex, or religion. In the United States democracy we are all equal, but some groups have been enjoying moreRead MoreEqual Employment Opportunity ( Eeo ), Affirmative Action And Diversity Initiatives Essay996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEqual Employment Opportunity (EEO), Affirmative Action and Diversity initiatives are three different concepts. However, they do have an inter-relation between them. Affirmative Action plans are initiated by the federal government. This programme ensures equal op portunities for employment and opportunities for self-development at workplace. It provides opportunities to qualified individuals who have been denied such opportunities in the past on some kind of discrimination. Primarily, it is a quotaRead MoreAffirmative Action Policies Should Be Implemented891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAffirmative Action Policies Should be Implemented Affirmative action policies should be implemented to improve to help propel the company forward. Affirmative action can be a useful tool to help create diversity in the workplace. Implementing affirmative action policies will encourage growth in the company because we will be able to effectively select and hire people, not on the basis of race but on actual qualifications that make a person suitable for a position in the company. Affirmative action
Posted by Shara Keeler at 10:45 AM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Evan Oberhausen Professor Tasha Lavey POLS 313 20 April 2015 Constitutional Theory Constitutional theory is an area of Constitutional law that focuses on the underpinnings of a constitutional government. It goes into the foundations of the Constitution and focuses on the meaning of it as well. It is a way to try and justify the rights and laws that the founders set down for us to interpret and to follow within the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Amidst the completion of the U.S. Constitution in 1788, when it had come time to ratify it, there was a general divide amongst the framers and the people. It seemed to split into two groups; the Federalists who favored the ratification and supported the expansion to a stronger and moreÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But despite the separation of powers, the Anti-Federalists were still wary of the federal government having too much power. There were only a few individual rights protections included in the original writing of the Constitution; whether it was out of fear that providing a list of p rotected rights might end up being incomplete and later interpreted to deny not listed rights, or because they had believed that they were creating a central government with limited powers that couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly have the authority to violate the individual rights the people deserved. Among the few that were included were ones such as, the Writ of Habeas Corpus not being suspended, unless in case of rebellion or invasion, then the prohibition of ex post facto laws and bills of attainder to prevent the punishment of crimes that occurred before they were illegal and singling out groups and individuals for certain punishments. The privileges and immunities clause essentially protects from states being able to discriminate against out of state citizens in regards to certain individual rights. The privileges and immunities clause however only extended to fundamental rights. The framers identified the protection from the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus except in cases of rebellion and invasion in order to protect citizens from being taken and held prisoner with no legal
Posted by Shara Keeler at 3:31 PM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(23) " the North of America\." African-American history Booker T. Washington and W. E. We will write a custom essay sample on African-American History or any similar topic only for you Order Now B. Du Bois had contrasting views on how to deal with the problems facing American-Americans. Which was superior in dealing with these conflicts? Booker T. Washington and WEB Du Bois are perhaps the two most important and influential African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s of the late nineteenth century and they both played pivotal roles in the Civil Rights movement. However, as the question suggests, they also had very contrasting political beliefs when it came to impacting the African-American movement. To fully understand where the two leaders had similarities and contrasts in their political views, I will first study WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the African-American cause, and the reasons behind his choices. Focus will then shift to Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ views and his main criticisms of Washington, and whether these criticisms were valid or not. To understand the methods and reactions of Washington and Du Bois it is first essential to understand the background they were functioning in. During the late nineteenth century, when Washington and Du Bois were at their peak, Reconstruction had failed and life for many African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s was considerably worse then it had been before the American Civil War and the abolishment of slavery. African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s found themselves in the worse paid jobs in both rural areas, where they were exploited by an unfair sharecropping system, and in more urban areas, where the industrial revolution was beginning to take hold. Segregation was also rapidly moving throughout American society being reinforced in 1896 by the Plessy vs. Fergusoncase where it was decided that segregation was constitutional under the argument that it was Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ . More worryingly, during this time the number of African-Americans falling victim to lynching was rapidly growing. Due to these worsening conditions many African-American leaders of the time developed a tolerating attitude towards the obvious oppression there people were suffering, believing that outspoken protest would only make situations worse, and so instead they would appeal for aid from wealthy and influential whites and encourage African-Americans to Ã¢â¬Å"lift themselves by their bootstrapsÃ¢â¬ . When looking at the background context it becomes clear why Washington and Du Bois had differing views when it came to Civil Rights. Washington had been born a slave in the South and grew up poorly fed and clothed and was denied an education. Growing up in the South Washington would have had first hand experience with the sort of discrimination many African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s were faced with at the time and would have also understood the real fear many African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s had of lynching. With this in mind it can be seen why Washington would have been more cautious in his methods of progressing Civil Rights. Du Bois by contrast was born a freeman in the North and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t suffer discrimination until he entered higher education, and so it is understandable why he would not have had the same reservations as Washington when it came to a more radical approach to dealing with the oppression of African-Americans. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s work for the African-American race can be most clearly seen when looking at the Tuskegee Institution, which still exists today. The school opened in July 1881 and was at the outset only space rented from a local church, with only one teacher, that being Washington. The following year Washington was able to purchase a former plantation, which became the permanent site of the school, and the students themselves erected and fitted the buildings, as well as growing their own crops and rearing their own livestock. While the Tuskegee Institute did offer some academic training for teachers, its main focus was on providing practical skills needed to survive in rural areas, such as carpentry and modern agricultural techniques. It can be argued that this more vocational slant towards teaching was damaging in the progression of African-American rights, however Washington believed that to become socially equal to whites, African-Americans must first become economically equal and show that they are responsible American citizens, who had something to offer society. Also, it can be argued that the practical teaching of the Tuskegee Institute was far more beneficial for the time than academic teaching would have been. The Institute is also a good example of why perhaps Washington had some merit with his views of appeasement. Washington was able to use his friendship with powerful white men to help finance the school and even got ex-slave owners, such as George W. Campbell, to support the new school. Without this aid it is unlikely that the Tuskegee Institute would have ever evolved from a small rented room into the huge institution that it is today. While the Tuskegee Institute showcased WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s views on education the Atlanta Expedition Address illustrated what he supposedly believed African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s place in society should be. Washington delivered the ddress in 1895, and was designed to Ã¢â¬Å"cement the friendship of the races and bring about hearty cooperation between themÃ¢â¬ . WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose with the Atlanta Address was to help achieve a realistic settlement between Southern Whites, Northern Whites and the African-American community in a time when race relations were only getting worse. Washington was no doubt anxious not to antagonise the white populatio n who held African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s at their mercy, and so he Ã¢â¬Å"urged blacks to remain in the South, work at the Ã¢â¬Ëcommon occupations of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢, and accept the fact of white supremacyÃ¢â¬ . When addressing the white population in his speech Washington reassured them that African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s had no intention or interest in securing social equality, that all they required was economic cooperation, Ã¢â¬Å"In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progressÃ¢â¬ . The work Washington did for African-American crossed over into the twentieth century with the creation of the National Negro Business Leaguein 1900. The aim of the League was to help promote and further the commercial and financial development of African-American business , not only in the South but also the North of America. You read "African-American History" in category "Papers" The creation of the League empathized WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that to become socially equal to whites that African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s must first become economically equal. However it can be argued that the League held little importance when considering African-American business as it did little to assist, but that it allowed Washington to have a Ã¢â¬Å"strongholdÃ¢â¬ of men in every black population of importance . Compared to Washington Du Bois political views can be seen as being quite radical for the social climate of the time. Du Bois probably had more radical views because of his different background, as he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a history of slavery and did live in fear of lynching the way many African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s did at the time. However, Du Bois did share some similarities in thought with Washington, for example Du Bois also believed that African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s needed to help bring themselves out of social inequality. However, unlike Washington, Du Bois believed that African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s needed leadership from a college-educated elite and that simple vocational education wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to elevate the position of African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s in society, Ã¢â¬Å"Men we shall have only as we make manhood the object of the work of the schools Ã¢â¬â intelligence, broad sympathy, knowledge of the world that was and is, and of the relation of men to it Ã¢â¬â this is the curriculum of that Higher Education which must underlie true life. On this foundation we may build bread winning, skill of hand and quickness of brain, with never a fear lest the child and man mistake the means of living for the object of lifeÃ¢â¬ , Du Bois set out the ideas of an elite group of African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching other African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s in his Ã¢â¬Å"The Talented TenthÃ¢â¬ article, the idea being that there was one in ten African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s, the talented tenth, was capable of becoming an influential leader, who would lead other African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s to a better future. Du Bois had many criticism of Washington, many of which he set out in an essay in 1903 titled Ã¢â¬Å"Of Mr Booker T Washington and OthersÃ¢â¬ . Du Bois felt that Washington focused too much on vocational education and that Ã¢â¬Å"his educational program was too narrowÃ¢â¬ . This particular criticism no doubt evolved from Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ own education which was wide and varied, and his more privileged background which allowed him the luxury of exploring avenues of education that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t directly lead to work. Du Bois also believed that WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s methods and arguments Ã¢â¬Å"practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro racesÃ¢â¬ . This criticism is almost entirely valid as Washington himself stated that African-Americans should accept White Supremacy in his Atlanta Expedition Address, and while it is doubtful that Washington himself saw the African-American race as inferior, he did little to try and convince the general population otherwise. Washington urged African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s to earn security through economic means and technical skills, and he put little importance on higher education and political and social rights, believing that they would follow naturally from economic freedom. However Du Bois argued that this approach would lead to many African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s living below the poverty line, because he believed that it was impossible for most people to gain economic rights and freedoms when they were unequal socially. Du Bois also clashed with Washington due to their differing political ideologies. While Washington championed capitalist ideals, Du Bois, who became a leading Black Marxist, felt that any social freedoms gained by economic progress would make the African-American population into dishonest money makers . Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ Marxist views came into play with other disparagements he had with Washington, most apparent in 1903 when Du Bois tried to prove Washington was using Ã¢â¬Å"hush moneyÃ¢â¬ to control the African-American press, to make sure his own views were the more favoured in print . To some degree Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ criticisms of Washington were valid, as Washington did little to resolve the social issues that plagued the African-American race, so as not to seem controversial or threatening to the white population. However, when looking at the backgrounds of the two leaders it becomes obvious why they had such opposing views. Washington had been born a Slave in the South and so he would naturally be more cautious and reserved when dealing with the white population as he knew the damage that a majority population could cause to African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s. He matured in a time when the number of lynchings was ever growing, and so he would fully recognise and understand the fear most African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s lived with. Du Bois by contrast, was born a freeman in the North, which was far more liberal and accepting than the South and so he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a proper grasp of the everyday problems and anxieties many African-AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ dealt with. It can also be argued that while Du Bois spent large amounts of his time criticising Washington, he actually did nothing practical to forward the progress of African-AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ the way Washington did with the Tuskegee Institute. While Du Bois was WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s most vocal and famous opponent, he was far from the only challenger. A black president of Atlanta University, John Hope, was vocal of his disagreement with WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Atlanta Address, stating in 1896 Ã¢â¬Å"I regard it as cowardly and dishonest for any of our coloured men to tell white people and coloured people that we are not struggling for equality. Now catch your breath, for I am going to say that we demand social equalityÃ¢â¬ . While this view was to be expected among Northern black leaders, Hope shattered the illusion that all African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s in the South were willing to simply accept their lowered social status. William Monroe Trotter, editor of the Boston Guardian, was another of WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s most unforgiving critics and claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"[Washington], whatever good he may do, has injured and is injuring the race more than he can aid it by his school. Let us hope that Booker Washington will remain mouth-closed at Tuskegee. If he will do this, all his former sins will be forgivenÃ¢â¬ . TrotterÃ¢â¬â¢s views are to some degree far harsher than Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ were, but the general idea theme is the same, that Washington was not helping the African-American race by deemphasising the importance of social equality, and that he was in fact hindering to movement. Trotter also challenged Washington at a National Negro Business League meeting in Boston while Washington was giving a speech. Trotter posed a number of questions that challenged Washington and his views, before he was arrested. While Washington did not respond to the challenges, Trotter made his point and the incident was reported as Ã¢â¬Å"The Boston RiotÃ¢â¬ the next day in papers. As can be seen, Washington and Du Bois had to some degree very opposing views on how to handle and progress the African-American race. Washington put great empathise on vocational education that would give practical skills to African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s living in the South. Rather than focus on social and political equality, Washington stressed the importance of economic advancement, believing that once the average African-American had the power of wealth that political and social freedoms and powers would follow. Washington felt there was great importance in appeasing the white majority, for the economic and political power it affording him in furthering the African-American cause and because he lived in the turbulent South, where it was dangerous to be a radical black man. Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ political ideas contrasted with WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of Ã¢â¬Å"appeasementÃ¢â¬ and he had a far more radical approach to Civil Rights. Du Bois didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think that it was possible for African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s to achieve economic equality before they had achieved social and political equality. Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ more radical approach stems from his background, as he did not share the same fear as Washington and did not experience the same forms of racism. Bu Bois could afford to be more radical has he had not experienced slavery and his placement in the North meant that he did not share the fear of lynching that many in the South had. Du Bois also put more empathise on academic teaching and did not feel that WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s vocational education would be useful in helping the progress of African-Americans. However, Washington and Du Bois did share some similarities in political thought. They both recognised the importance of having the support of powerful white men, who could both finance and encourage their cause. While both Washington and Du Bois had good arguments for doing things in their particular ways, it is probably safe to say that neither had perfect strategies. Washington was too timid to argue for equality, and Du Bois had no practical ideas he could implement. It is fair to suggest that a mixture of their two views would have been the best way to progress the African-American cause, as Washington had practical methods of improved the average African-AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s life, such as the Tuskegee Institute, and Du Bois was able to protest the obvious oppression that African-AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ suffered. Bibliography American Memory from the Library of Congress, 2008, National Negro Business League,Ã http://lcweb2. loc. gov:8081/ammem/amrlhtml/dtnegbus. html Fairclough, Adam, 2002, Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890-2000, New York: Penguin Books Franklin, John H. Meier, August, 1982, Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century, Illinois: University of Illinois Press History Matters, 2006, Booker T. Washington Delivers the 1895 Atlanta Compromise Speech,Ã http://historymatters. gmu. edu/d/39/ History Matters, 2006, W. E. B. DuBois Critiques Booker T. Washington: Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,Ã http://historymatters. gmu. edu/d/40 TeachingAmericanHistory. org, 2008, The Talented Tenth by WEB Du Bois,http://teachingamericanhistory. org/library/index. asp? document=174 White, John,1985, Black Leadership in America 1895-1968, New York: Longman Inc. How to cite African-American History, Papers
Posted by Shara Keeler at 1:59 PM
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theWireless Networks for Complementary Code Checking. Answer: Physical layer of 802.11b and 802.11a 802.11b: As like any other wireless technology, the IEEE 802.11b standard offers a suitable wireless alternative to wired networks based on a short frequency range application. It is a simple standard that requires a minimal cost to establish. Now, physical layer characteristics (inner workings): 11b operates within the ISM frequency range, a range that encapsulates Industrial Scientific and Medical services. This range is given as 2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz. Secondly, it has a convenient chip rate for its radio spectrum interface i.e. 11 MHz which will enable the transmission rate of 1 to 11 Mbps(Geier, 802.11a Physical Layer Revealed, 2003). Furthermore, its frequency band is divided into 14 sections of 22 MHz thickness which diversifies the operational bandwidth. Finally, its operations are supported by several modulation techniques including complementary code checking (CCK) and direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS). Application of these techniques depends on the data rate being used(Koivisto, 2006). Another suitable alternative to wired systems where wireless communication is supported using the radio spectrum. 802.11a is characterized by the use of OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) technique, which increases the bandwidth of transmission. Now, the physical layer: 11a uses the physical layer convergence procedure (PLCP) to convert data frames into the protocol data units (PPDU). This PDU contains fields such preamble, parity value and data rate among others, elements that facilitate communication(Geier, 802.11a Physical Layer Revealed, 2003). Moreover, its functional frequency band is given as 5 GHz, a connection that yields a high data rate of 54 Mbps. It also divides the frequency channel into 48 segments based on the original band of 20 MHz. This diversification of the radio spectrum increases the number of data rates, which enables it to offers various data options i.e. 6, 12 and 24 Mbps. Finally, its modulation is facilitated by different techniques again based on the data rates used. Binary phase shift keying (BPSK)for 6 Mbps and Quadrature amplitude technique (QAM) for 54 Mbps(Khan, 2013). Critical comparison 802.11b 802.11a Data rate 1 to 11 Mbps 6 to 24 Mbps Frequency band 2.4 GHz 5 GHz Modulation techniques CCK and DSSS BPSK and QAM The 802.11i A security protocol developed to solve the problems of the original standard of 802.11 which had various authentication limitations. In general, the 802.11 standards were developed to offer security features of authentication and encryption based on the Wi-Fi protection access (WPA). However, this structure had limitation based on its unencrypted systems, an outcome that exposed WLAN. Now, in its place is the 802.11i standard which provides a second generation security standard (WPA2) having enhanced encryption in the form of AES (Advanced encryption standard). Moreover, a four-way handshake is used based on the extensible authentication protocol (EAP)(Latour, 2012). Client getting server authentication: First, the client request access to the server by sending a notification EAP message. The access port then transmits an EAP message to identify itself. In response, the client encrypts its operations only for the server and authenticator to see. The server gets the messages and requests an identity verification. The client responds, which is either accepted or rejected by the server. If identity is verified, the client is given access to the server by the transformation of the access ports into the authorized state(electronics, 2017). The usage of Virtual Private Networks (VPN) As the name suggests, this technology offers internet subscribers the ability to transmit data using personalized and private channels. These channels are established across the greater medium of the internet where security is never guaranteed. VPNs, encrypt data based on several security protocols including IPsec and GRE (generic routing encapsulation). These protocols facilitate the encryption of data frames which minimizes intrusions based on interception techniques such as snooping and eavesdropping. Moreover, they facilitate the authentication of the access medium through personalized accounts or portals which improves accountability and operation conveniences(Cisco, 2000). Two general types of VPN exist: Site to site networks where big scale connections are established based on verified encryption standards, and Remote access where point to point access is given to users accessing LANs from remote locations. As a multinational organization, ZeeTech is growing at a tremendous rate which has necessitated the need for system expansion. Now, Wireless Metropolitan Area Network offers a convenient solution for this business as it would facilitate the exchange of information across a wider area while meeting the conveniences of wireless transmission. Several WMAN technologies are thus considered: WiMAX: using the 802.16 standards, WiMAX is outlined as the best alternative for meeting the WMAN connection requirement. This conclusion is based on the resources and services it offers including a wide coverage area as well as a high data rate (Omerovic). In all, this technology is characterized by the following features as related to ZeeTech applications: First, it establishes connections that facilitate the operation of first and last mile system which will boost services across the Melbourne branches. Secondly, it has a wide frequency band (10 GHz and 66 GHz) which increases the bandwidth of operation. It also stems down its functionalities to include low-frequency operations i.e. 11 GHz band range. Furthermore, its characterized by a high data rate of between 100 Mbit/s to 1 g Gbit/s. Its security features include high-level air interface encryption and authentication which enables end to end encryption. Finally, the cost is based on user requirements which increase the service quota(IEEE, 2016). HiperACCESS: another common WMAN technology that facilitates the implementation of broadband services across a medium-sized system. Now, while this technology may have a few limitations, it does offer backhaul services that include mobile technology solutions such as GSM. In all, it has the following features in relation to the case study: A relatively high data rate of 100Mbit/s Secondly, it does have a high-frequency band 40.5 GHz which also happens to limit low-frequency functionalities. This frequency range increases the coverage area, but it also affects the low-frequency systems as they are never supported. Advanced access control is used for security purposes. Finally, has a minimal implementation cost(WMICH, 2015). HiperMAN: The final alternative for WMAN networks, HiperMAN offers broadband connections based on a 2 GHz frequency band. It is also characterized by: Optimal transfer rates that reach up to 56.9 Mbit/s. A frequency band that facilitates low-frequency data transmission (below 11 GHz). Improved point to multipoint configuration, an outcome that facilitates the application of mesh networks. High-end encryption boosted by optimal modulation techniques. A low-cost solution(ETSI, 2009). 2G technologies Time division multiple access (TDMA) a multiplexing technique that is used in wireless communication to optimize the bandwidth of data transmission. The TDMA technique uses a time scheme to allocate space across the radio spectrum(point, 2017). In essence, the frequency band is split into several slots that are assigned to users based on a time allocation procedure. Features: Optimal for both data and voice transmission. Allocates radio spectrum space based on time. A cheap solution for analog to digital transmission. Code division multiple access (CDMA) another multiplexing technique that is used in wireless networks to maximize the bandwidth of operation. Unlike TDMA, CDMA does not allocate the space of the radio spectrum, instead, it facilitates transmission of several signals by using a pseudo-code identification scheme. Therefore, unique codes are assigned to the individual users who use the entire radio spectrum. Now, this outcome increases the individual bandwidth of the communicating signals which is a convenient solution for modern digital systems. Features: Offers an extended bandwidth of operation. High-end security features based on pseudo code encryption. Finally, optimal for both data and voice transmissions. Global system for mobile communications (GSM) another wireless technology that offers both digital and cellular functionalities. GSM is identified as an open technology as its function objectives promote integration and interoperability(FLETC, 2012). Furthermore, unlike the previous two, it uses circuit switching techniques to establish network connections. Features: A circuit-switched technology. Transmits both data and voice. References Cisco. (2000). Introduction to VPNs. Extending the Classic WAN, Retrieved 27 September, 2017, from: https://www.cisco.com/networkers/nw00/pres/2400.pdf. electronics, R. (2017). IEEE 802.11i Wi-Fi Security: WEP WPA / WPA2. Radio electronics, Retrieved 27 September, 2017, from:" https://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/wi-fi/ieee-802-11i-security-wpa2-wep.php. ETSI. (2009). Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN); HIPERACCESS; Packet based Convergence Layer; Part 1. ETSI TS 102 117-1, REtrieved 27 September, 2017, from: www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/102100_102199/.../01.01.../ts_10211502v010101p.pdf. FLETC, D. . (2012). Global System for Mobile Communication Technology. Mobile Device Investigations Program, Retrieved 28 September, 2017, from: https://www.eff.org/files/filenode/global_system_for_mobile_communication_technology.pdf. Geier, J. (2003). 802.11a Physical Layer Revealed. Wi-Fi planet, Retrieved 26 Sepember, 2017, from:www.wi-fiplanet.com/tutorials/article.php/2109881/80211a-Physical-Layer-gra.htm. IEEE. (2016). The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards. WirelessMAN standards for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks, Retrieved 26 September, 2017, from: https://www.ieee802.org/16/. Khan, R. (2013). Comparison of IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g. Code project, Retrieved 27 September, 2017, from: https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/13253/Comparison-of-IEEE-a-IEEE-b-and-IEEE. Koivisto, T. (2006). Overview of IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN. S-72.4210 Postgraduate course in Radio Communication, Retrieved 26 September, 2017, from: https://www.comlab.hut.fi/opetus/4210/presentations/8_wlan.pdf. Latour, L. (2012). 802.11i, Authentication and You. CISCO, Retrieved 26 September, 2017, from; https://supportforums.cisco.com/t5/wireless-mobility-blogs/802-11i-authentication-and-you/ba-p/3104143. Omerovic, S. (n.d.). WiMax Overview. Retrieved 27 September, 2017, from: https://www.lait.fe.uni-lj.si/Seminarji/s_omerovic.pdf. WMICH. (2015). WPAN, WLAN, WMAN. Retrieved 26 September, 2017, from; ttps://cs.wmich.edu/alfuqaha/Fall11/cs6570/lectures/Bluetooth-ZigBee.pdf.
Posted by Shara Keeler at 5:38 AM